The INCIT-EV project aims to demonstrate an innovative set of charging infrastructures, technologies and associated business models focused on improving the electric vehicle user experience beyond the early adopters, thus fostering the market share of electric vehicles in the EU.
Within the tasks of the H2020 INCIT-EV project WP3 is involved, related to the user-centric electric vehicle charging infrastructure. WP3 has the objective of designing and modeling the innovative charging equipment needed to carry out the rest of the project activities. Thus, the main developments of this are four: low and medium power DC-DC bidirectional chargers, superfast conductive charging systems improvements, Opportunity Wireless Power Transfer (OWPT) with stops and Static en-route charging, and Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer (DWPT) with urban and extra-urban charging.
As a result of the analysis of the tasks corresponding to each of these developments, the following conclusions are presented regarding the design of the system:
CIRCE V2G charger
The final design of the low cost chargers designed by CIRCE are composed of medium power AC/DC and DC/DC converters (12.5 to 25 kW) that can be paralleled to obtain any power rating. SiC components and methodologies allow the size and weight of the final equipment to be reduced by increasing the power density. These power electronics designs allow bi-directional capabilities, enabling V2G and ancillary services such as voltage control, frequency regulation or phase balancing. The superfast charging system will ultimately be composed of these low and medium power charger electronics modules, allowing the system to achieve 200 kW in the Estonian demonstrator.
In regard to the inductive wireless charge, the same 30 kW secondary inductor (coil in the vehicle designed by VEDECOM) is used in all the use cases allowing interoperability for all the wireless technologies. The Zaragoza static charging system of 50 kW with liquid cooling (CIRCE and TRIA) has been designed to be installed below the road surface for opportunity charging scenarios. For dynamic charging (VEDECOM and CIRCE) two different solutions have been designed for urban (<60 km/h in Paris) and highway speeds (<130 km/h in Versailles) capable of charging up to 120 kW simultaneously per charge segment (10 to 30 meters).
For the urban environment, multiple but small inductors are proposed, with a limited electromagnetic field allowing the presence of pedestrians in the vicinity of the charging lane. For the intercity environment, smaller but larger low-cost inductors are proposed, allowing multiple coils to be charged from a single primary coil on the ground. Both systems can achieve 90 kW of charging in a single vehicle.
An on-board charger is included in the vehicles to control the charging current of the on-board batteries. In addition, a lane keeping assistant has been proposed to keep the vehicle aligned during charging.
Although a large part of the work has been carried out, in order to finally define the specifications and obtain the final design of the system, it is required to continue working on the following on the actual charging performance and to study the magnetic field to ensure EMC and a safe electromagnetic field for the users. The final design of the charging technologies and prototypes will be realized in WP7 and WP8 during the third year of the project.